Java Records OOP

In Java, records are a special kind of class introduced in Java 14 as a preview feature and made stable in Java 16. Records provide a quick way of creating data-carrying classes without having to write boilerplate code. They are particularly useful in applications where you need to create classes that serve primarily as data …

Inheritance in Java OOP

Inheritance in Java allows classes to inherit properties and methods from other classes, promoting code reusability and establishing a hierarchical relationship between classes. This principle of Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) lets a subclass utilize fields and methods of its superclass, except for constructors, which are not inherited. Understanding Inheritance Superclass (Parent Class): The class whose features …

Polymorphism in Java OOP

Polymorphism is a core concept in object-oriented programming (OOP) that allows objects of different classes to be treated as objects of a common superclass. It’s one of the four major OOP principles, alongside encapsulation, inheritance, and abstraction. Polymorphism in Java enables a single interface to be used for a general class of actions. The specific …

Constructors in Java OOP

In Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) with Java, constructors play a crucial role in initializing new objects. A constructor in Java is a special type of method that is called automatically when an instance of a class is created. Its primary purpose is to initialize the newly created object. Key Characteristics of Constructors: Name: A constructor must …

Map and HashMap in Java

In Java, the Map interface and HashMap class are fundamental components of the Java Collections Framework, providing a powerful way to store and manage key-value pairs. Map Interface The Map interface represents a collection that maps unique keys to values. A key is an object that you use to retrieve a value at a later …

Java Unit Testing with JUnit

Java unit testing is a critical part of the software development process, enabling developers to test individual units of source code to determine if they are fit for use. JUnit is one of the most popular frameworks for unit testing in Java. It provides annotations to identify test methods, assertions to test expected results, and …

Java Multithreading Explained

Multithreading in Java is a core mechanism that allows for the concurrent execution of two or more parts of a program to maximize CPU utilization. Each part, known as a thread, operates independently within the program, enabling complex applications to perform multiple tasks simultaneously. Creating Threads in Java There are two primary ways to create …

Java Generics Tutorial

Generics in Java enable classes, interfaces, and methods to operate on types specified by the client at the time of use. This feature brings stronger type checks at compile time, eliminates the need for type casting, and allows for more generalized and reusable code. Let’s delve into a comprehensive yet straightforward tutorial on Java generics …

Java Enums Tutorial

Java enums (short for enumerations) are special classes representing a group of constants (unchangeable variables, like final variables). Enums improve type safety, make code easier to read, and eliminate the need for traditional public static final constants. Let’s explore Java enums with examples and comments to illustrate their usage. Basic Enum Declaration and Usage Enums …

Exception Handling in Java

Exception handling in Java is a powerful mechanism that handles runtime errors to maintain normal application flow. An exception is an event that disrupts the normal flow of the program’s instructions. Java uses a try-catch block to catch exceptions and perform actions to either recover from the error or at least gracefully terminate the program, …