Java Records OOP

In Java, records are a special kind of class introduced in Java 14 as a preview feature and made stable in Java 16. Records provide a quick way of creating data-carrying classes without having to write boilerplate code. They are particularly useful in applications where you need to create classes that serve primarily as data containers — with final fields, a constructor, equals(), hashCode(), and toString() methods.

Characteristics of Records:

  1. Immutable: Record components are final by default, meaning their values are assigned at the time of object creation and cannot be modified later.
  2. Conciseness: Records reduce boilerplate code, making your codebase cleaner and easier to read.
  3. Transparent: Automatically generated methods like equals(), hashCode(), and toString() provide a deep understanding of the record’s state.


The syntax for defining a record is succinct:

Example of a Record in Java:

Consider an application where you need to deal with user information. Instead of a traditional class, you can use a record:

This single line defines a record User with two components: name and age. Java automatically generates a constructor, equals(), hashCode(), and toString() methods for this record.

Using Records:

Advantages of Using Records:

  • Readability: By reducing boilerplate code, records make your class definitions cleaner and more focused on what matters: the data.
  • Immutability: Since record components are final, records are inherently immutable, leading to safer and more predictable code, especially in concurrent applications.
  • Utility Methods: Automatically generated equals(), hashCode(), and toString() methods make records ready for use in collections and debugging without additional effort.

When to Use Records:

  • When you need immutable data carriers.
  • In places where you’d typically use a class or final class with final fields and only a parameterized constructor.
  • When working with data transfer objects (DTOs), value objects, and entities in various design patterns.


Records in Java offer a modern and concise way to model immutable data in your applications. By providing a straightforward syntax for declaring data-carrying classes and reducing the boilerplate code associated with such classes, records enhance code readability and maintainability. As you adopt newer versions of Java, consider leveraging records for a more functional and declarative coding style.

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