Java Enums Tutorial

Java enums (short for enumerations) are special classes representing a group of constants (unchangeable variables, like final variables). Enums improve type safety, make code easier to read, and eliminate the need for traditional public static final constants. Let’s explore Java enums with examples and comments to illustrate their usage.

Basic Enum Declaration and Usage

Enums are defined using the enum keyword. Here’s a simple enum representing the days of the week:

Enum with Methods and Constructors

Enums in Java can have fields, constructors, and methods. Here’s an example of an enum representing directions, with a method to get the direction description:

Iterating Over Enums

You can iterate over the values of an enum using the values() method, which returns an array of enum constants.

Enum in a Switch Statement

Enums work seamlessly with switch statements, offering a type-safe way to execute different code blocks based on enum values.

Enums with Abstract Methods

Enums can declare abstract methods, which allows each constant to provide its own implementation.


Java enums offer a powerful mechanism to define a set of predefined constants, providing a type-safe way to work with fixed sets of values. With support for fields, methods, and constructors, enums can be as complex as required by your application, enhancing readability, maintainability, and safety of your code.

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