Java Basics Tutorial

Java, as a widely-used programming language, offers a structured approach to software development with its syntax, use of comments, and variable declaration. Understanding these fundamental aspects is crucial for anyone starting with Java or looking to refresh their knowledge.


The syntax of Java is somewhat similar to C and C++, making it familiar to those with experience in these languages. A Java program is made up of classes and methods, and the entry point for any Java application is the main method.

Example of a Basic Java Program:

In this example, public class Main defines a class named Main. Java is case-sensitive, meaning Main and main are different identifiers. The main method is where the JVM starts program execution. The System.out.println statement is used to print text to the console.


Java supports single-line and multi-line comments that are not executed by the compiler. Comments are essential for adding notes and explanations to the code, improving its readability and maintainability.

Single-line Comments:

Multi-line Comments:

Java also supports documentation comments (/** ... */), primarily used to generate external documentation for your code.


Variables in Java are containers for storing data values. Before you use a variable, you must declare it by specifying the data type and assigning it a name.

Variable Declaration and Initialization:

Data Types: Java has various data types, including:

  • Primitive types: such as int, double, boolean, and char.
  • Reference types: such as String, arrays, and classes.

Variable Naming Conventions:

  • Variable names should start with a letter (a-z or A-Z), dollar sign ($), or underscore (_).
  • After the first character, variable names can contain letters, digits (0-9), dollar signs ($), or underscores (_).
  • Variable names are case-sensitive.
  • Use meaningful names to make the code more readable.

Understanding Java’s syntax, comments, and variables is foundational for writing effective Java programs. These elements are the building blocks of Java programming, enabling developers to write clear, efficient, and maintainable code.

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